ACT Growth Modeling Resources


Growth modeling based on assessments of college and career readiness can be used to measure progress—both for individual students and school systems.

  • Growth modeling tells students how far they need to progress to reach their readiness goals.
  • Growth modeling is also used for educational research and evaluation. Measures of student growth can be used as one component of teacher, school, or district evaluation and can help diagnose areas of strength and weakness.

To help individuals and school systems implement growth models based on ACT assessments, ACT provides normative growth data for various assessment combinations and grade levels.

Types of Growth Models

  • Growth to Standards Model—Student progress can be monitored with respect to the ACT Readiness Benchmarks beginning in grade 3.
  • Conditional Score Averages Model—Growth can be described in a normative fashion by considering the average of test score 2 for each value of test score 1. These averages are known as conditional score averages.
  • Projection Model—Projection models answer the question “Given this student’s observed past scores, and based on patterns of scores in the past, where is she likely to score in the future?”
  • Student Growth Percentile Model—This model describes how well a student performed relative to peers with similar score histories. Student Growth Percentiles are reported by ACT Aspire.
  • Value-Added Interpretations—Measures of student growth can be aggregated to support value-added interpretations for instructional programs, teachers, schools, and districts.

For more information on ACT’s growth modeling research, review these ACT Publications.